In 1971 I graduated from Westfield College, University of London with a BA (Hons) in English & Archaeology. I took it for granted that I had a right to go to university and that following my degree, I would enter the marketplace as a professional woman, equal to any man doing the same job of work.
I started researching the roles and expectations of young Victorian women for my novel Murder & Mayhem (publ this September). The story features bright 17 year old ‘Feminist’ Letitia Simpkins who desperately wants to learn more, but is denied access to further education by her authoritarian father. It made me realise how lucky I was to have been born in the mid-20th century rather than the mid-19th century.
For bright young Victorian women, the doors to further education closed at 16. Intellectual curiosity and thinking skills were considered a waste of time, given that the purpose of a woman’s life was to marry and be the mother of (many) children.
As one contemporary wrote: “Girls are to dwell in quiet homes, among a few friends; to exercise a noiseless influence, to be submissive and retiring.” (Sewell, Principles of Education).
Interestingly as far back as 1694, Mary Astell’s A Serious Proposal to the Ladies suggested a type of university education. But of course, the very fact that the proposer was female meant that the idea was not taken up or considered seriously.
Women were just thought of as physically incapable of scholarship. For a start their brains were nearly 150 grammes lighter than men’s brains. So that must indicate that their intellect was weaker. And then there was the vexed question of menstruation, which sapped the body of lifeblood.
Put those two together, and it was quite apparent that women who used their brain too much ran the risk of becoming sterile, as their wombs atrophied, thus negating their purpose in life, or even worse, producing “a puny, enfeebled and sickly race” of children.
You may laugh, or gasp in amazement, but this was a widely held medical opinion at the time. Girls were strongly advised to focus on making their homes a sphere of accomplishment, rather than striving for a higher education. And to wait patiently for some young man (who may well have had the benefit of a university education) to come calling.
That the ‘petticoat problem’ began to resolve itself was entirely due to the actions of a few determined young women who decided that rather than break down the doors, they’d pick the lock and fight for equal education for women.
In 1850 North London Collegiate School opened, followed a few years later by Cheltenham Ladies College. The key word is ‘college’ – these weren’t places to learn embroidery, a smattering of French, some maths and what to do in a thunderstorm. They were seats of learning, encouraging girls to see themselves as capable of entering university and from there, the workplace.
In 1879 London University became the first to admit women undergraduates on the same terms as men. One of the pioneering women who enabled this to happen was Constance Maynard, who in 1863 campaigned for girls to be allowed to sit the Cambridge Locals (the equivalent of GCSEs) and then the Higher Locals (A levels).
When I was at Westfield, originally founded as a women’s college, my hall of residence was called Maynard House, a fitting tribute to a Bluestocking pioneer. Without women like her, prepared to step out of the shadows and campaign for their beliefs, I would not have had the benefit of a university education, and the opportunity to have a productive and fulfilling career.
Murder & Mayhem: an extract
In which our heroine Letitia Simpkins discovers an unpleasant truth:
''The pleasant and instructive visits to the Regent Street Ladies’ Literary & Philosophical Society seem a distant memory. The outside world seems a distant memory. There is nothing in Letitia’s life now that she recognises. The joy of it has run out as quickly as it gathered.
Letitia pauses outside the parlour door which unusually, has been left ajar. She leans against the door jamb, bone weary and despondent. She sees her papa and Mrs Briscoe sitting side by side on the sofa. Mrs Briscoe is speaking. It takes Letitia a few seconds to realise whom she is talking about.
“Really, it is a most unfortunate situation. The girl has barely learned sufficient to equip her for a useful life. I do so sympathise with you, my dear friend. That mauvais quart d’heure in between school and marriage is always difficult.”
Her father snorts.
“It was Susan’s whim to send her to the boarding school in the first place. She thought mixing with a better class of girl would help her find a husband. As if any self-respecting man will marry her. She hardly has the looks to attract a suitor. And I cannot offer a dowry - there is the boys’ schooling to pay for, and then their university fees. They must have the best start in life.”
“I do so understand. And of course, you are quite right. But as I wrote in my little pamphlet: How to be Happy Though Unmarried, there are many things a girl can do. The poor are always with us, so there is plenty of charity work.
“And there is no household task that any girl should deem beneath her position to perform, as I have frequently reminded Letitia. All these useful occupations will enable her to pass her days in dignified tranquillity”
Letitia’s eyes brim with tears. She does not know what hurts more, to hear her own father admit her lack of beauty, or to understand that he does not care what happens to her in the future. However Mrs Briscoe’s next remark causes her to breathe in sharply.
“Has she had any more letters from those vile Women’s Rights creatures?”
“Not for a while.”
“I am so glad you managed to intercept them, my dear. A parent must be vigilant at all times. One tiny slip, and a girl’s reputation is gone, never to return.”
“I have locked them away safely, never fear. And I have instructed Mary to make sure the post in and out of the house is always placed directly upon my desk.”
Mrs Briscoe leans forward, placing her hand on his.
“It is no more than your duty as a loving caring father. And now that you are a widower - though hopefully not for too long, you must be even more vigilant on your daughter’s behalf.
“A young girl’s true sphere is in the home, and there she shines brightly. Skill with her needle is the only accomplishment she needs.” ''
(Murder & Mayhem tbp.)
First woman to graduate from Glasgow University: Marion Dunlop, medicine, 1894. A decade later she signed the death certificate of Isabella Elder, the philanthropist whose money provided the building for Queen Margaret College, the first in Scotland to offer higher education to women, later part of GU and thus vital to Marion's graduation. Women's history is fascinating. I feel for your young heroine.ReplyDelete
People take it so for granted that women have access to higher education. Very few men campaigned. I note, with wry smile, that the big issue now is boys underachieving! Really? How sad.Delete
And it still goes on - so many small projects in the developing world are still fighting for the rights of girls to be educated. But if a woman can read she will encourage all her children to learn. But boys who can read go the cities to look for work and leave the same lack of learning behind them.ReplyDelete
I know. In Afghanistan, the Taliban's first job seems to be to close down girls' schools. Unbelievable.Delete
I'm glad things have changed. It's tragic to think of all those people with great minds who were given no opportunity to develop to their full potential.ReplyDelete
One wonders how many women developed 'hysteria' and other 'illnesses' in the past purely because their lives were so stultifying....Delete
The way out of poverty and the way to self reliance has always been education. Your post shows how those that benefitted from servitude closely guarded access to that education. I write a column on Fridays called Feminist Friday (www.haddonmusings.com) and invite you to link this post so that my followers can read it.ReplyDelete
Thanks...how do I go about this?Delete
It seems inconceivable to us here in the western world now that we should not have the same educational opportunities as men, but it's only because it was fought for, tooth and nail, and Jo is right; there are still many many places where girls still don't have that right. By the way, it's also interesting to know that my OH's sisters left school after primary education. They were skippers' daughters, so basic education was considered enough and then they had to stay on board and help with the barge. To be fair, though, even the boys did not get educated to a high level unless they fought for it. This was in the 1950s, so not that long ago!ReplyDelete
I happen to know that only one month separates our birth dates and yet it would seem that a century separates our education experiences, I wanted to go to University with a passion but my parents refused. Mum said I was to do a year's typing course as this would always be a good backup in between having children. I finally went to University when my youngest child was five and had started full time education. It was tough but I achieved my educational ambition. It wasn't Mum's fault. It was the world that she lived in. She was possibly the proudest mother in that hall when I graduated.ReplyDelete
I wonder whether it was because my mum had turned her back on her faith..we weren't in a Jewish community, and we were Reform, so the traditions were less. I do know that if we were n the same situation now, my brother would go, not me...she did once say that had I NOT got a maintenance grant & my fees paid, I wouldn't have gone....Delete
Iwas born in the best time to be a woman in a good place to be a woman but despite the Virginia advert, You've come a long way baby," we aren't there yet.ReplyDelete
It actually makes me very cross to read blogs/articles like this Carol. Had I been around at the time of the Suffragettes and Maynard, I would have campaigned, trust me! That women still do not receive equal pay annoys the heck out of me! Popping over from #SundayBlogShareReplyDelete
What equally annoys me is that isn many countries, fenale education is STILL being denied thousands of girls! Think on Afghanistan, parts of Bangladesh and many many places in Africa, or Syria, where was interrupts schooling. The same phallocentric attitude that believed women were inferior still persists!Delete